Robespierre’s biography - translated from the French version of wikipedia (English one is far too short). I will translate his last speech sometime this week, but it might take some time, it is very long, but eye opening & relevant to our troubled times.
Maximilien Marie Isidore de Robespierre, or Maximilien Robespierre is a lawyer and a French Politician born May 6th, 1758 and died in Arras guillotined July 28th, 1794 in Paris, Place de la Revolution. Maximilien de Robespierre is one of the leading figures of the French Revolution and is also one of the most controversial figures of this period.
Maximilien Robespierre was the eldest in a family of five children and he lost his mother at the age of six years old. His father abandoned the home and therefore Maximilian is supported by his maternal grandfather. After an excellent education at Arras College and Louis-le-Grand College in Paris, a law graduate, he became a lawyer in 1781 and is part of the Provincial Council of Artois same time occupying the office of judge in episcopal court.
Third state elected deputy to the States General in 1789, he soon became a leading figure of the “democrats” in the Constituent Assembly, advocating the abolition of slavery and the death penalty, the right to vote for people of color, Jews and like so the universal suffrage and equal rights, against the silver mark. He also decided to severely restrict the Stock Market His intransigence soon earned him the nickname “the Incorruptible.” Member of the Jacobin Club since its origins, it is the most illustrious member and one of the figureheads. After the split Feuillant, it contributes greatly to its reorganization and allows it to maintain the support of most affiliates province.
Opposed the war against Austria in 1792, he opposed La Fayette and supports the fall of the monarchy. Member of the insurrectionary Commune of Paris, he was elected to the National Convention, where he sat on the benches of the Mountain and opposes the Gironde. After the days of May 31 and June 2, 1793, he entered 27 July 1793 the Committee of Public hello, where he participated in the establishment of a revolutionary government and Terror, in the context of external war against monarchies coalition and civil war (federalist insurrection, war of Vendée …).
Following the victory of the committees against factions in spring 1794, it helps to stop the policy of de-Christianization and did vote, as rapporteur, the decree of 18 Floreal Year II, in which "the French people recognize the existence of the Supreme Being and the immortality of the soul, “and the law of Prairial, called the" Great Terror ".
Attacked and isolated within the Convention by former Dantonist and sent on mission recalled, but also within the revolutionary government by the Committee of General Security and colleagues from the Committee of Public hello, it takes the Convention to witness these dissensions 8 Thermidor Year II, but fails to impose its views. The next day, prevented from speaking by his enemies, allies to the circumstance moderate Plain, he was arrested with his brother Augustin and his friends Couthon, Saint-Just and Le Bas. Common between the insurgency and then made free, but he’s wasting time, and the Convention outlaws him.
During the night, an army column seized the town hall, where he is with his supporters, and he was wounded in the jaw in uncertain circumstances. After verifying his identity before the Revolutionary Tribunal, he was guillotined in the afternoon of 10 Thermidor with twenty-one of his supporters. His death results in the coming months, a “Thermidorian reaction”, which sees the dismantling of the revolutionary government and the Terror.
Idealist imbued with the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Robespierre is anxious to relieve the poor and build a more just society. This concern for social justice was quickly made detestable in the eyes of revolutionaries who, faithful to the ideas of Voltaire (the enemy of Rousseau), were more concerned with promoting economic liberalism (eg Le Chapelier law of 1791). The fall of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor marked the end of the Terror, but also the abolition of social measures it had taken in favor of the poor (the law of general maximum for example, who controlled the price of bread and grain) . For these reasons, some historians as Henri Guillemin tried to rehabilitate the memory of the Incorruptible.